A Health Educator’s Guide to Understanding Drugs of Abuse Testing

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Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2010 - 230 pages
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The drug free workplace initiative was started in 1986 by President Ronald Reagan when he issued an executive order to develop guidelines for drug abuse testing for Federal Government employees. Since then, most state, government, and private employers have adopted the policy of a drug free workplace. Today, pre-employment drug testing is almost mandatory and passing the drug test is a condition for hire. A Health Educator's Guide to Understanding Drug Abuse Testing describes in layman’s language the process of testing for drugs and provides coverage of what potential employees are being tested for, how the tests are performed, and what foods and drugs may affect the test results and may jeopardize a person's chance of being hired. Written by a practicing toxicologist, this text gives health educators a solid foundation in the process of drug testing and helps them understand how different methods of cheating drug tests are rendered ineffectual.
 

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Well seeing as though it has been proven 1000's of times already that poppyseeds do indeed cause false positves for opiates in ,''drug testing'' and it is a fact that all his ,''testing'' with coca teas he added the solvents ethanol and acid to the volunteers urine,then actually ,''tested'' the end product of the ,''wet chemistry,'' mixture of the 3 components,,the ethanol+acid+coca molecule=benzoylecgonine,,,and not ever testing the volunteers as they consumed the teas ,which was with WATER,,,I guess this proves iF you make the compound benzoylecgonine,,then test it for benzoylecgonine,then yes indeed,,you will test positive for benzoylecgonine,not cocaine....Wow,,,its takes a phd to discover this??Maybe someone needs to look up who paid for all this obvious propaganda research,,,then maybe we would find the real reason why this reseach/book was ever even written,,,Anyone who compares white powder cocaine to a simple cup of tea,made w/only leaf's and water is doing so to spread propaganda,not to help anyone.,because it is simply not true.Green leaf's are not a white powdery substance,no matter who or how you try to make up a story,,its like telling the public that grass is NOT GREEN IN COLOR,,, ,paita 

Contents

Drugs of Abuse Past and Present
1
HISTORY OF DRUG ABUSE
2
DRUG ABUSE IN THE UNITED STATES
3
DRUG ABUSE IN MAJOR US CITIES
4
STREET NAMES OF COMMON DRUGS
5
REGULATORY ISSUES
6
ABUSE OF PRESCRIPTION MEDICATIONS
7
ABUSE OF NONPRESCRIPTION MEDICATIONS
8
FLUSHING DETOXIFICATION AGENTS DIURETICS AND HERBAL TEA
107
ASPIRIN AND OTHER NONSTEROIDAL ANTIINFLAMMATORY DRUGS
108
BITTER ORANGE AND AMPHETAMINE IMMUNOASSAY SCREENING
109
A CONCLUSION
110
Household Chemicals as Urinary Adulterants
113
SPECIMEN INTEGRITY TESTS
114
CONCLUSION
120
Urine Luck Klear Urine Aid Stealth and Related Urinary Adulterants
123

ADVERSE EFFECTS OF DRUGS OF ABUSE
9
CONCLUSION
11
Pharmacology and Genetic Aspects of Abused Drugs
13
THE ROLE OF DOPAMINE
14
METABOLISM OF ABUSED DRUGS
15
AMPHETAMINE METHAMPHETAMINE AND SIMILAR DRUGS
16
BARBITURATES
18
BENZODIAZEPINES
20
COCAINE ABUSE
21
A Deadly Combination
22
MARIJUANA
23
OPIATES
24
METHADONE
25
PROPOXYPHENE
26
METHAQUALONE AND GLUTETHIMIDE
27
CONCLUSION
28
Designer Drugs A New Challenge
33
DESIGNER DRUGS AS AMPHETAMINE ANALOGS
34
DESIGNER DRUGS DERIVED FROM PHENYLETHYLAMINE
36
ILLICIT DRUGS THAT ARE FENTANYL ANALOGS
37
USE AND ABUSE
38
ABUSE OF GHB AND ITS ANALOGS
39
ROHYPNOL
41
Evolution of PreEmployment and Workplace Drug Testing
45
EXECUTIVE ORDER OF PRESIDENT REAGAN
46
WHEN SHOULD DRUG TESTING BE CONDUCTED?
49
SAMHSACERTIFIED LABORATORIES
50
CONCLUSION
52
REFERENCES
53
Testing of SAMHSA and NonSAMHSA Drugs
55
SAMHSAMANDATED DRUG TESTS
56
Cocaine
57
Marijuana Cannabinoid
58
Phencyclidine
59
ROLE OF THE MEDICAL REVIEW OFFICER IN SAMHSAMANDATED DRUG TESTING
60
Barbiturates
61
Oxycodone
62
Methaqualone
63
Shy Bladder Syndrome
64
REFERENCES
65
Legal Issues
67
MEDICAL DRUG TESTING VERSUS WORKPLACE DRUG TESTING
68
WORKERS COMPENSATION
69
UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION
70
STATE AND FEDERAL DRUG LAWS
71
REFERENCES
72
Methodologies for DrugsofAbuse Testing
73
IMMUNOASSAYS FOR DRUGSOFABUSE TESTING BASIC PRINCIPLES
74
HOMOGENEOUS VERSUS HETEROGENEOUS ASSAY FORMAT
75
HETEROGENEOUS IMMUNOASSAYS
77
THINLAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY FOR DRUG ANALYSIS
78
MASS SPECTROMETRIC TECHNIQUES FOR DRUG CONFIRMATION
79
GCMS FOR DRUG CONFIRMATION
81
SIM VERSUS FULL SCAN
84
ANALYSIS OF AMPHETAMINES
86
ANALYSIS OF BENZODIAZEPINES
88
ANALYSIS OF CANNABINOIDS
89
ANALYSIS OF METHADONE
90
CONCLUSION
91
PointofCare Devices for Drug Testing Advantages and Limitations
95
LATERALFLOW IMMUNOASSAY
96
POINTOFCARE TESTING DEVICES FOR ORAL FLUID
98
POINTOFCARE TESTING FOR SWEAT SPECIMENS
99
CONCLUSION
100
Beating Drug Tests with Flushing Detoxifying Agents and Synthetic and Substituted Urine
103
COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE FLUSHING AND DETOXIFYING PRODUCTS
104
SPECIMEN INTEGRITY TESTING
105
OXIDIZING AGENTS
124
NITRITECONTAINING AGENTS
126
PEROXIDASE
127
GLUTARALDEHYDE
128
OTHER URINARY ADULTERANTS
129
IDENTIFYING ADULTERATED SPECIMENS
130
URINE DIPSTICKS TO DETECT URINARY ADULTERANTS
131
CONCLUSION
132
Alternative Explanations for True Positives in Drug Testing PoppySeed Products Health Tea Passive Marijuana Inhalation and Hemp Oil
135
POPPY PLANTS AND POPPY SEEDS
136
HEROIN ABUSE VERSUS POPPY SEED CONSUMPTION
137
HEALTH INCA TEA AND MATE DE COCA TEA
138
PASSIVE INHALATION OF MARIJUANA
139
HEMP OIL
140
CONCLUSION
142
Miscellaneous DrugsofAbuse Testing Issues Contaminated Currency Mushrooms Hallucinogens and Glue and Solvent Sniffing
145
HANDLING MONEY CONTAMINATED WITH DRUGS
146
MAGIC MUSHROOM ABUSE
147
PSILOCIN AND AMPHETAMINE SCREENING
148
LYSERGIC ACID
149
KETAMINE
150
CONCLUSION
153
OvertheCounter Drugs That Interfere with Drug Testing
157
EPHEDRACONTAINING WEIGHTLOSS PRODUCTS
158
EFFECT OF INHALER USE ON AMPHETAMINEMETHAMPHETAMINE SCREENING
159
SOME OTC COLD MEDICATIONS MOVED BEHIND THE COUNTER
160
OTC COLD MEDICATIONS MAY BE FATAL IN INFANTS
161
RANITIDINE AND AMPHETAMINEMETHAMPHETAMINE SCREENING
162
OTC DRUGS CONTAINING CODEINE AND OPIATE
164
REFERENCES
165
Prescription Medications That Interfere with Drug Testing
167
PRESCRIPTION DRUGS THAT INTERFERE WITH AMPHETAMINEMETHAMPHETAMINE SCREENING
168
PRESCRIPTION DRUGS THAT ARE METABOLIZED TO AMPHETAMINE OR METHAMPHETAMINE
170
OPIOIDCONTAINING PRESCRIPTION DRUGS
171
USE OF MARINOL AND THE MARIJUANA TEST
172
BENZODIAZEPINECONTAINING DRUGS
173
EFFECT OF OXAPROZIN ON IMMUNOASSAY SCREENING FOR BENZODIAZEPINES
175
CONCLUSION
176
Passing PreEmployment and Workplace Drug Tests
179
DILUTE URINE AND DRUG TESTING
180
HERBAL REMEDIES AND HERBAL TEA
182
POPPY SEEDS AND HEMP PRODUCTS
183
COLD COUGH AND PRESCRIPTION MEDICATIONS
184
ADULTERANTS
187
Drug Testing of Hair Oral Fluid Sweat and Meconium
189
TESTING OF HAIR SPECIMENS
190
Incorporation of Drugs in Hair
192
Abuse Versus Environmental Exposure
193
Concentrations of Various Abused Drugs in Hair
194
Adulteration of Hair Specimens
195
Analysis of Drugs in Hair Specimens
196
Concentrations of Drugs in Oral Fluid Specimens
197
Analysis of Oral Fluids
199
SWEAT TESTING
200
Analysis of Sweat Testing
202
Concentrations of Drugs in Meconium
203
Analysis of Meconium
204
Herbal Remedies and DrugsofAbuse Testing
207
HERBAL REMEDIES AND ADVERSE EFFECTS
208
INTERACTION OF ST JOHNS WORT WITH WESTERN DRUGS
209
HERBAL SUPPLEMENTS THAT DO NOT INTERFERE WITH DRUGSOFABUSE TESTING
210
HERBAL SUPPLEMENTS CONTAINING HALLUCINOGENS
211
ABUSE OF JIMSON WEED
213
CONCLUSION
214
APPENDIX
217
INDEX
219
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Professor of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Texas Health Sciences Center, Houston, Texas

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